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What is laser welding?
Laser welding uses high-energy laser pulses to locally heat a small area of material. The energy from the laser radiation spreads through the material by heat conduction, melting the material and forming a specific melt pool.
The 4 main features of metal laser welding machines.
- Laser welding is mainly aimed at welding thin-walled materials and precision parts.
- it can realize spot welding, butt welding, stack welding, seal welding, etc., with high depth to width ratio
- Small welding seam width, small heat affected zone, small deformation, fast welding speed, flat and beautiful weld seam.
- No treatment or simple treatment after welding, high weld quality, no porosity, precise control, small focusing spot, high positioning accuracy, easy to realize automation.
The working principle of laser welding machine for metal
1, high voltage drive xenon lamp luminescence, installed together with the YGA crystal by the laser luminescence, by the all-trans and semi-trans diaphragm anti-body resonance, and then through the spectral, light gate input to the fiber, and finally the laser focused to a point
2, the power density on the focal plane can reach 105 -1013 w/cm2. laser welding machine is the use of laser beam excellent directional and high power density and other characteristics to work. Through the optical system
3, the laser beam is gathered in a very small area and, in a very short time, a local heat source area with a high concentration of energy is formed at the welded area, thus melting the welded object and forming a solid welded joint and weld.
Laser welding can be achieved with a continuous or pulsed laser beam. The principles of laser welding can be divided into heat conduction welding and laser deep fusion welding. The power density is less than 104~105 W/cm2 for heat conduction welding, when the melt depth shallow, slow welding speed; power density is greater than 105~107 W/cm2, the metal surface under the heat into a “hole”, the formation of deep fusion welding, with a fast welding speed, the characteristics of a large depth to width ratio.
The principle of heat transfer type laser welding is as follows.
The laser radiation heats the surface to be processed and the surface heat spreads internally by heat conduction. By controlling the laser parameters such as the width, energy, peak power and repetition frequency of the laser pulse, the workpiece is melted and a specific melt pool is formed.
Difference between CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers
Both CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers are invisible to the naked eye as infrared light.
The beam produced by the Nd:YAG laser is mainly near infrared light with a wavelength of 1.06 Lm. Thermal conductors absorb light at this wavelength at a high rate and for most metals it has a reflection rate of 20% to 30%.
The CO2 laser beam is far infrared light with a wavelength of 10.6Lm, most metals reflect 80% – 90% of this light and require special light mirrors to focus the beam to a diameter of 0. 75 – 0. 1mm.
Nd:YAG laser power can generally reach around 4000 to 6000W, with high power now reaching 10,000W, while CO2 laser power can easily reach 20,000W or more.